China's path to the global value chain of digital creative industries under the background of 5G - Dr. Chen Nengjun
I. Multi-dimensional thinking on the global value chain reconstruction of digital creative industries in the 5G era
1. Theoretical Mechanism: Based on the perspective of technology-economic paradigm shift
The history of human industrial revolution can be summarized in one sentence: a technological revolution, a generation of infrastructure, and a "technology-economic paradigm" . In the process of technological change, only the transformation of "technology-economic paradigm" can bring the "window of opportunity" to catch up. At present, China's 5G, big data and other new technologies have taken the lead in the world. Many scholars believe that the use of these new technologies and the construction of new infrastructure will open a new technological revolution after steam, power and information technology, which brings opportunities for China's digital creative industry to seize the global middle and high-end value chain.
Figure 1 Diamond Model of Digital Creative Industry
In the process of investigating the interaction and relationship between 5G and the digital creative industry, Porter's "diamond model" can be introduced and improved appropriately, and the corresponding theoretical discussion can be attempted. As shown in Figure 1, first, the production factors in the "diamond model", namely the cultural production factors in the digital creative industry, are taken as the driving force of innovative and technical growth. Secondly, the demand conditions in the "diamond model", that is, the global cultural consumption demand in the digital creative industry, are regarded as the demand-side innovation driving force of globalization. Third, the relevant industries in the "diamond model", namely, the emerging and integrated digital creative industries driven by 5G, AI, big data, Internet of Things and other technologies in the new era of digital creative industries, are taken as industrial innovation forms; Fourthly, the enterprise strategy, structure and competition mechanism in the "diamond model", namely the development of digital creative business model highly supported by 5G technology, should be regarded as the development outcome of the industrial system; Fifth, the government factors in the "diamond model", that is, the specific industrial policies and government guidance of the digital creative industry, are taken as the important goals of the government's digital industry governance. Based on the theoretical framework of the five aspects, this paper studies and explores the significance of 5G to the development of digital creative industry, and rationally analyzes the value of 5G to the promotion of China's digital creative industry in the global value chain.
First, digital creative production factors. At present, relevant emerging technologies represented by 5G have become the most critical production factors for the development of digital creative industry. These new technologies include 5G communication technology, artificial intelligence, big data, VR/AR, etc., which are the core driving force for the innovation and development of cultural industry and digital creative industry.
Second, the global demand for digital creative consumption. Horizontal perspective, in the 5G era, the traditional border restrictions on the consumption of cultural products, digital products and services will be greatly weakened. High-quality digital products can be quickly spread to all corners of the world through the Internet, and digital cultural enterprises will directly face the global consumer market. From a vertical perspective, 5G and other new technologies will further explore and create new consumer demand, while diversified, customized and gradually expanded digital consumer demand will continue to emerge and burst out.
Third, new forms of business for digital creative industries. The new business form of digital creative industry is a new link, new product form and new service form derived and superimposed from the existing industries and fields, which conforms to the diversified and personalized product or service demand and relies on technological innovation. Whether the new business forms of digital cultural industry can flourish will directly affect the position of China's digital creative industry in the global value chain.
Fourth, the new model of digital creative enterprises. In the 5G era, enterprises need to make full use of the advantages of 5G technology, grasp the new technologies closely related to 5G, and actively innovate in the business model. New business models may include digital design, immersive experience and other models. Continuous model innovation can optimize and reorganize various internal and external factors to improve their competitiveness.
Fifth, the government's digital industry policy. To achieve the high-quality development of China's digital creative industry, the role of the government should be given full play. On the one hand, the government can guide the development of digital creative industry by increasing the investment in new technology research and development. On the other hand, new technology has also brought an impact on the governance of cultural and creative content. Perfect government governance is one of the important guarantees for the healthy development of digital creative industry.
2. Influence the path
5G is another revolutionary breakthrough in the basic field of communication after 3G. The World Economic Forum even believes that 5G will open the fourth industrial revolution. 3G ushered in the era of the mobile Internet, while 5G ushered in the era of the Internet of Things and the Industrial Internet. According to the definition given at the 22nd International TelecommunicationUnion (ITU) Conference, there are three main application scenarios for 5G in the future: Enhancement Mobile Broadband (EMBB), where the theoretical download rate will reach 10Gb/s, 10 times the current theoretical transmission speed of 4G; Ultra high reliability and low delay communication (URLLC), 5G theoretical delay is 1 millisecond, is a few tens of milliseconds of 4G delay, basically reach the level of quasi-real-time; In terms of the theoretical value of the number of connected IoT terminals, 5G single communication cell has been more than ten times that of 4G, reaching millions.
Based on the above three application scenarios, three main features of 5G can be summarized: high speed, low latency and large capacity. The application of new 5G scenarios will inevitably provide higher technical added value for digital creative products, which will play a role in the development of international trade and the integration of global value chains, which is to promote the domestic digital creative industry to the high-end of GVC. In a word, the profound impact of 5G on the digital creative industry and 5G on the GVC of the digital creative industry starts from technological innovation, then develops to industrial application, and finally rises to the status of a country's digital creative industry in the global value chain. Therefore, it can be considered that the impact path of 5G on the global value chain of digital creative industries can be divided into three stages (Figure 2), namely, the stage of technological innovation, the stage of value addition and the stage of rising GVC status.
First, the stage of technological innovation. It is mainly the impact stage of 5G on the innovation and development of integrated and pedestal technologies such as cloud computing, big data and artificial intelligence. 5G will drive the development of cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies. First of all, the amount of data will explode based on the connectivity of everything brought about by 5G. In the post-industrial era, "data is the new oil," the greatest source of productivity. Specifically in the field of digital creative industry, big data will play an important role in information distribution, advertising and video entertainment. Secondly, based on 5G high-speed transmission, cloud computing technology will be widely used. Cloud computing is a production tool using big data, which plays a strong role in supporting the development of big data. By calling computing power, data and storage resources through the cloud, hardware resources can be saved. Finally, 5G can also promote the development of the artificial intelligence industry. On the one hand, the massive data generated by the 5G Internet of Everything can accelerate the application of artificial intelligence. On the other hand, artificial intelligence could make 5G more flexible and efficient for people to use. Based on the connection between intelligent machines and machines, and finally connecting people with machines, 5G, together with cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies, will promote the construction of the Internet of Things and the Internet of cultural industries in China. Cultural innovation is as important as technological innovation and industrial innovation, and "digital technology" and "cultural creativity" are the approaches to industrial upgrading in the future .
Second, value added stage. It is mainly the impact stage of technological progress supported by 5G and the construction of new networks on the new models and new forms of business in various sub-fields of the digital creative industry. The scientific and technological innovation achievements supplied to the market can only be called effective supply when they are put into use and produce social and economic benefits, that is, their use value is realized . 5 g drive the technological progress and to build a new type of network can be applied to digital sub field of creative industries, both in the network literature, games, animation, film and television, entertainment for performing arts, music, photography, art, creative design, publishing, online education, the influence of such cultural services also include virtual reality, augmented reality on VR, etc, holographic imaging, open hole 3 d graphics engine development (3-d), interactive entertainment, such as digital technology. 5G will drive the sub-sectors of the digital creative industry to innovate industrial content, optimize industrial interaction methods, and subvert the traditional business model of the digital industry. Through the change of business model and interaction mode in key areas, the company has enhanced the technical complexity of digital creative products, increased the added value of domestic products, helped high-quality cultural products to go overseas, and promoted cross-border mergers and acquisitions. The application of 5G in specific fields of cultural creativity can actually promote the development of cultural manufacturing in specific fields, and technology and application complement each other. After the development of 5G network, 5G network technology needs to be integrated with cameras, game consoles, VR glasses and other technological products to develop new technologies that are widely used in cultural product creation, dissemination, experience and other aspects .
Third, GVC status climbing stage. It is mainly the impact stage of the new changes of the digital creative industry driven by 5G on the global value chain of the digital creative industry. With the widely application of the 5 g communication technology, will greatly promote cultural industry from the efficiency of production to circulation and sales link, bring new value for the culture industry, at the same time, the digital information will also accelerate because of the 5 g technology application information transmission, cultural factors of production and products to flow rapidly, culture and science and technology have deep integration. From the perspective of global industrial chain, this will eventually facilitate the digital creative industry products (or services) of a country to obtain higher industrial efficiency, contain higher added value, and climb to the high-end position of the global value chain of the digital creative industry.
Fig. 2 The relationship between 5G and artificial intelligence and other technologies and its influence path on GVC of digital creative industries
3.5G Reconstruction of Digital Creative Industry: Specific Performance
The reconstruction of the digital creative industry by 5G will be all-round. Whether it is product production mode, business model, or product value distribution, 5G will have a disruptive impact on the digital creative industry. This also determines that it is difficult for the current research to fully reveal such influence and evolution from the perspective of the whole industry, and it is more feasible to start with the analysis of some major digital creative fields.
(1) The field of music
5G will complete the revolution of digital music to the traditional music industry. On the production side, 5G technology makes it much easier to make electronic music. Many songs don't even require physical instruments. On the transmission side, 5G technology will achieve faster transmission speed and more device connections. Many intelligent hardware, including sofa, toilet, etc., can play music. On the consumer side, streaming music continues to grow rapidly, surpassing and even replacing digital downloads and traditional records.
From a game publishing perspective, 5G will bring about a change in the ecology of algorithm-based content through big data and artificial intelligence technologies. The launch of games has changed from the original channel logic of gathering users to the logic of precisely capturing users, and game development has become more precise. From a technical point of view, 5G will bring a tenfold increase in transmission speed and delay, perfectly solving the delays and vertigo problems faced by fighting competitive games and VR/AR games.
(3) Industrial design and engineering design
The use of 5G will have a positive impact on VR\AR\MR technology, significantly enhance the real-time interaction ability of industrial design and engineering design, and improve the work efficiency of designers. In addition, after getting rid of fiber optic bondage in 5G era, experience design, service design and human-computer interaction (HCI) will replace the traditional interface design (UI design), bringing infinite imagination to the design industry. Design innovation and technology innovation in the order of the constantly changing, in some cases, the design innovation will be ahead of technology innovation, when after the conceptual design to produce, if the existing technical conditions can't meet the needs of the new design, the technical problem needed for the new plan would become a technology research and development of priority object , but technical innovation for design innovation is like a shadow with adhesion effect, 5 g era is no exception.
(4) Cultural Tourism Scenic Area and Block Area
5G will provide stronger support for the construction of smart scenic spots. After completion of 5 g network laid, can directly improve the terminal in unit area, the number of cover means that scenic spots can be on the 5 g, architecture safety emergency management, peak crowd monitoring key service function, further implement real-time monitoring, real-time processing, real-time feedback technology, finally achieve the purpose of improving the capacity of tourism scenic area overall service reception. At the same time, tourist attractions can build all kinds of LBS (location-based service) platforms dedicated to their own, through scenic spot explanation, guide shopping, real scene games, virtual scene demonstration and other innovative business architecture on the platform, strengthen the mining value of scenic spots, to create a richer tourism experience for tourists.
(5) Film, television and live broadcasting
5G will usher in a new era in the video industry, featuring large broadband and low time delay. Technologically, 5G will promote the development of advanced technologies such as ultra-8K high-definition video technology and VR/AR, and at the same time promote profound changes in various links in the industrial chain, such as video collection, production, transmission, presentation and application. "5G+4K/8K" shooting can not only realize real-time shooting and real-time transmission, but also achieve remote processing, multi-point co-production and improve the shooting efficiency and effect by cloud rendering and cloud production. "5G+VR/AR" can fully meet the new service requirements of the future video entertainment industry; New fields such as "5G+ aerial drone photography" will open up the airspace economy of video production and entertainment experience.
4.5g plays a role in the specific links of digital creative industry value chain
(1) Improve the technical complexity of digital creative products and increase the added value of domestic products
The arrival of 5G intelligent era will enhance the technological content of cultural product production, communication, consumption and other links, promote the cultural industry to reshape the ecosystem, and finally promote the digital development of domestic cultural industry through revolutionary technological innovation, and improve the added value of domestic cultural products. From the perspective of technology itself, 5G technology can break through the spatial limitations of cultural resources, drive the innovation of the form of cultural resources, and enable cultural resources to be displayed in front of the public in a new and more modern way. From the perspective of support and support, the support and application of 5G technology to VR, AR, AI, Internet of Things, big data, ultra-high definition video field, wireless home entertainment and other fields can promote the development of these related ecosystems, and then empower the intelligent application of cultural industry. At the present stage, China generally lags behind Western developed countries in film, animation, games and film and television production. First of all, movies lag behind the United States. Among the top ten global box office tickets in 2019, American Hollywood films occupy the top eight, and only domestic animation film Ne Zha and original science fiction film The Wandering Earth can be listed in the top ten. Secondly, animation lags behind Japan, many domestic animation companies focus on the imitation of the successful model, lack of innovation ability. Compared with Japanese animation masters such as Hayao Miyazaki, Toshi Kon and Makoto Shinkai, there are few famous animation directors in China. Many excellent Chinese animation works are not expressive, and the overall quality is obviously lower than that of Japan. Third, games as a whole still lag behind Korea. Korean manufacturers have strong research and development capabilities. Many games imported from Korea, such as Crossfire, DNF, Legend, PUBG and Black Desert, which have been popular in China in recent years. The fundamental solution to China's digital creative industry lagging behind developed countries at the present stage is technology enabling. 5G and other new technologies will enhance the technical complexity of digital creative products and increase the added value of technology.
(2) Help quality cultural products go overseas
It is an inevitable path for China's outstanding traditional culture to go overseas, and it is also the key to the global development of digital creative industry. 5G will play an important role in promoting China's high-quality cultural products to go overseas. Take Tik Tok, Bytedance's flagship star product, for example. Thanks to China's 5G network construction, big data, artificial intelligence and the development of the live-streaming video industry, Tik Tok first gained a foothold in China and then unstoppably conquered foreign cities. TikTok, the overseas version of TikTok, uses a personalized intelligent recommendation algorithm based on machine learning to push content according to users' preferences. With its strong technical strength and good product experience, Douyin has become one of the most popular applications in many overseas countries. Sensor Tower Store intelligence data shows that as of the end of March 2020, TikTok has been downloaded more than 1.82 billion times on the mobile end. In January 2020, the total downloads of TikTok in the App Store and Google Play reached 104 million times, surpassing WhatsApp and becoming the most downloaded mobile application in the world . The US, which is famous for innovation, began to copy China. As early as the beginning of November 2018, Facebook released a social application Lasso, which is almost identical with TikTok . Game industry, China's leading network technology advantage is helping China mobile game sea. Both South Korea and China are game exporters. Although the game industry of South Korea is stronger than that of China on the whole, the development of mobile Internet in China gives China an advantage in the development of mobile game compared with South Korea, and the developmmobile gameof BBB1 is slightly ahead of that of South Korea. The data shows. The sales revenue of China's self-developed online games in overseas markets continues to grow. In 2018, the overseas market has gained about 22% share, and the actual total sales revenue has reached about 30% , becoming an important source of income for Chinese game enterprises. In the overseas sales market of online games, mobile game market accounts for more than half of the overseas revenue of online games. The positioning of the Chinese game market has changed from a follower in the era of PC games to a pioneer in the era of mobile games.
(3) Promoting cross-border mergers and acquisitions
The development of technology will promote the overseas mergers and acquisitions of enterprises, especially the leading enterprises with competitive advantages in China, one after another through overseas mergers and acquisitions, access to foreign quality copyright and network channels, the upstream and downstream extension of the industrial chain, improve their international competitiveness. Overseas acquisitions by digital creative companies have been most prominent in the film, television and gaming sectors. Gaming, tencent overseas m&a action is frequent, the first completed the Epic, Riot Games game makers such as mergers and acquisitions, establish the leading position of the client computer Games, in order to further to grab market share and influence in the field of mobile Games, with $8.6 billion to buy the 84.3% stake in the Finnish mobile game developers Supercell, get through the global market of tencent, strengthen the brand influence and appeal. 5 g technology to promote the development of film industry in the global mergers and acquisitions of disruptive technology and mode, in the field of film and television, wanda Group is actively accelerate layout in overseas markets in recent years, not only the acquisition of AMC, Australia Hoyts, Hollywood marketing company Propaganda GEM, legendary pictures, Hollywood, also through its Odeon & AMC to buy the British UCI Cinemas Carmike has wanda Group Group, the United States. In 2016, Wanda bought DCP (Dick Clark Productions), one of the world's largest live TV producers, for $1 billion. The company has produced numerous awards ceremonies including the Golden Globes and is a well-known TV production company in the United States. From the overseas strategic layout of Wanda Group, the scope of the acquisition of enterprises covers studios, cinema lines and film marketing companies, covering every link of the entire film industry chain. In terms of cinema lines, Wanda Group has completed the layout in the three major film markets of China, North America and Europe, and has a leading position, making itself the largest cinema line operator with absolute advantages in the global scope. In addition, in terms of film production, Wanda Group has brought overseas technology and film production capacity to China through acquisition. Currently, Wanda Group has completed the acquisition of DCG and Legendary Pictures.
II. China's path to the global value chain reconstruction of digital creative industries in the 5G era
The aforementioned research shows that 5G, through the coordinated promotion of the development of artificial intelligence and other technologies, can innovate new models and new business forms of the digital creative industry, ultimately improve the technical complexity of digital creative products, promote the export of digital creative products, and promote cross-border mergers and acquisitions of companies in the digital creative industry. In order to prosper China's digital creative industry and seize the high end of the value chain of digital creative industry, it is planned to put forward the Chinese path of global value chain reconstruction from the perspectives of content creation, copyright protection and international cooperation.
1. Establish a stable, transparent, predictable and competitive policy environment and optimize the content review mechanism
The integrated development of digital creative industries in the 5G era is accompanied by frequent emergence of new products, new business forms and new models. In order to avoid the dilemma of stifled innovation or regulatory vacuum and the emergence of "quick release and chaotic management", regulation must adapt to the development pace of digital creative industries. First, we must uphold the bottom line of law and security, and resolutely stop and severely punish anti-Party, anti-socialist, terrorism, pornography, gambling and drug use in accordance with the law. Secondly, different review mechanisms should be set up for different subsectors. For industries involving more licenses, such as audio and video, the application procedures are relatively complicated and there are many difficulties. Therefore, certain professional review thresholds should be maintained and sufficient time should be given. In the emerging fields such as mobile game and webcast, in order to avoid curbing innovative development, we should emphasize the negative list and other ways to point out a clear direction for the future development of the industry. Finally, the joint governance model of the government and platform enterprises should be improved. The government and some domestic digital creative platform enterprises should clarify the boundary of rights and responsibilities to achieve the unity of rights and obligations, and the platform should also assume part of the responsibility of content review.
2. Explore and build Chinese culture and tell Chinese stories well
Culture and science and technology are the two wings of creativity, and the innovation-driven effect of digital technology will become the most powerful driving factor for the construction of Chinese culture's foreign communication capacity . On the one hand, culture provides content drivers for scientific and technological innovation. Plums and pure, for example, China's own characteristic culture just to foreign audiences for the China story provides the high quality material, by recording farming pastoral beauty and diy making traditional Chinese cuisine video, since December 2019, plums and pure successively by the communist youth league central, such as CCTV news media named praise. Data show that Li Ziqi has more than 7 million global fans on overseas social media, and the views of her videos often reach millions or even tens of millions. Many foreigners love China through Li Qi's videos. On the other hand, science and technology make it possible for cross-cultural integration and innovative expression of culture. Taking digital Dunhuang and digital Forbidden City as examples, with the help of VR technology, traditional Chinese cultural IP can be put on wings, so that domestic and foreign audiences can enjoy the Chinese cultural treasures without leaving home.
3. Establish Chinese technologies and standards for the digital creative industry
In modern society, the competition of global value chain between countries is the competition of technology and standard in the final analysis. Whoever masters the standard and technology has the pricing power. To this end, it is necessary to formulate Chinese standards for domestic digital creative industry technology as soon as possible, make every effort to make them a world standard, and constantly improve the value creation ability of intangible assets, such as patents, commodities, brands, standards, etc., to create an innovative ecological environment for promoting high-quality development. On the one hand, it actively promotes the integration of industrial assets and digital assets, creates specialization, branding and refined value increment, and strives to build a global leading enterprise in segmented fields, as well as a "global challenger" brand enterprise. , on the other hand, efforts to strengthen the construction of international standards and certification system in our country, continue to consolidate our country in big data and cloud computing, artificial intelligence, communications equipment and so on the new Chinese standards in the field of infrastructure construction, actively participate in international cooperation, vigorously promote Chinese standard internationalization, in order to enhance the control in the digital economy era of global value chain and global governance.
4. Accelerate the construction of intellectual property protection system, especially actively strengthen the coordination of foreign-related intellectual property protection
At present, the added value of China's digital creative industry is relatively low, and the deficit is increasing year by year, which is related to the weak copyright protection. In order to accelerate the high-quality development of China's digital creative industry, it is urgent to build an intellectual property protection system in line with the characteristics of The Times. At the institutional level, we will promote the reform of intellectual property institutions and accelerate the construction of a legal system for intellectual property protection. On the technical level, vigorously develop the blockchain technology. 5 g era, with the acceleration of the development of the digital technology and its application in the field of development, digital creative product tampering with ease, ease of copying, high liquidity, and deep links, cloud storage, web transcoding technology development, such as making creative digital copyright protection is harder, though in recent years in strengthening the digital copyright protection in China has made many efforts, has made some achievements, but piracy is still restricting our 5 g era industry one of the main factors for the development of the digital culture. The characteristics of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, traceability, openness and tamper-proof, can solve the problem of copyright infringement and piracy. By closely connecting digital copyright owners and users through technical means, it can effectively improve the creative motivation of copyright authors, media payment rate and media copyright protection ability. It can be predicted that with the further development of 5G technology, it will have a strong driving ability for the content payment industry.