Application of Virtual Reality technology and augmented Reality technology in teaching - Dr. Qiao Mu
Abstract: In recent years, VR technology has become popular, and many VR application technologies have rapidly covered many cultural and entertainment fields, such as film and television, games, sports and so on. VR technology can provide users with highly realistic virtual scenes, which is suitable for education. At the same time, the research and development of augmented reality technology and the emergence of virtual reality technology has provided a great increase. The combination of virtual reality technology and augmented reality technology not only enables teachers to explain knowledge points in more details and images in daily teaching activities, but also makes it easier for students to understand knowledge, so that learning is not confined to the text on the textbook.
Keywords: Virtual reality technology; Augmented reality; Combining; teaching
1 the introduction
VR is short for Virtual Reality, namely Virtual Reality technology. Virtual Reality is a new computer technology evolved from computer vision, simulation technology, human-computer interaction and other information technologies. By isolating the visual world from the real world, the display device enables people to travel through and immerse themselves in a completely virtual world. Virtual reality technology establishes artificial three-dimensional virtual environment, and users interact with objects in the virtual environment in a natural way, which greatly expands the ability of human beings to understand the world, simulate and adapt to the world. Virtual reality technology is widely used in simulation training, industrial design, interactive experience and other fields, to solve many major and universal needs.
Augmented reality is a new technology developed on the basis of virtual reality. Augmented reality technology is based on computer display and interaction, network tracking and positioning and other technologies. Virtual information generated by computers is superimposed on real scenes in reality to supplement the real world and enhance people's experience of the real world in visual, auditory, tactile and other aspects. Augmented reality has three major characteristics, namely, virtual and real combination, real-time interaction and THREE-DIMENSIONAL registration. Augmented reality has three display modes, which are divided into head-mounted, hand-held and spatial display according to the distance from eyes from near to far. Augmented reality has a wide range of applications. For example, in the field of education, augmented reality can present holographic images, virtual experiments and virtual environments for students. In the tourism industry, augmented reality can help tourists to play scenic spots by themselves, and explain the overview of scenic spots, development history, cultural landscape and other contents to tourists in the form of virtual images. In the retail industry, augmented reality technology can achieve one-click try on, and has great application space in online sales. Augmented reality has shown good application prospects in industry, medical, military, municipal, TV, game, exhibition and other fields.
Mixed reality is a further development of virtual reality technology, which presents virtual scene information in the real scene and builds an interactive feedback information loop between the real world, virtual world and users to enhance the reality of user experience. Mixed reality technology combines the advantages of virtual reality technology and augmented reality technology and can better reflect augmented reality technology. According to Mann's theory, smart hardware will eventually move from augmented reality to mixed reality. The difference between MIXED reality and augmented reality is that while mixed reality uses a camera to show you what you can't see with the naked eye, AUGMENTED reality simply overlays the virtual environment, not the reality itself.
The origin of virtual reality technology and augmented reality technology
The year 2016 has been dubbed "the first year of virtual reality" by the industry, which might be mistaken for a new technology developed in recent years. Actually otherwise, virtual reality technology originating in the United States, in 1965, the father of the virtual reality Ivan Sutherland at the international federation of information processing conference published a paper entitled "the ultimate show" first put forward in the paper including has interactive graphics display, force feedback devices, and voice prompts the basic idea of virtual reality system, The description is that we are now familiar with the "virtual reality", as early as in the early stage of virtual reality technology research, Suzalan in its "Sword of Damocles" system to achieve three-dimensional display. Augmented reality, which provides informative and entertaining overlay on top of the real environment, was introduced by Sutherland while conducting research on head-mounted displays. In 1966, Lincoln Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology began the development of head-mounted display. Soon after the first head-mounted display prototype was completed, the developers added force feedback devices to the system that simulated force and touch. In 1970, the first fully functional head-mounted display system appeared. In 1989, Jaron Lanier of VPL company proposed the term "Virtual Reality", and developed Virtual Reality technology as a commodity, which promoted the development and application of Virtual Reality technology. Virtual reality emerged in the 1990s. After 2000, virtual reality technology introduced XML, JAVA and other advanced technologies in the integration and development, applied powerful 3D computing capability and interactive technology, improved rendering quality and transmission speed, and entered a new era of development. Virtual reality technology is the product of economic and social productivity development and has a broad application prospect. In February 2008, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a report entitled "14 Major Engineering Challenges of the 21st Century". Virtual reality is one of them, alongside technologies such as new energy, clean water and new medicines. In order to gain an advantage in virtual reality technology, governments and large companies in the United States, Britain and Japan have spared no expense in research and development in this field.
3. The application of virtual reality and augmented reality technology in teaching
3.1 Application of head-mounted virtual reality and augmented reality equipment in teaching
Head-mounted virtual reality equipment generally includes head-mounted display, position tracker, data gloves and other equipment, etc., which can be divided into mobile virtual reality headset and split virtual reality headset. In foreign countries, there are vr headsets from Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Samsung and other companies. In China, there are more than 100 vr headsets from Weviscool, Antv, Storm Mirror, ZTE, LeEco, Huawei, Xiaomi and other companies. Combined with the research reports at home and abroad and the current virtual reality education practice, virtual reality and augmented reality technology can be applied in biology, physics, chemistry, engineering technology, processing, flying, language, history, human geography, cultural customs and other teaching.
When students use head-worn virtual reality equipment to experience learning, they will have the immersive feeling of being in a real situation, which can give students excellent real experience and make people feel as if they are on the scene, so that the content in books can be touched, interactive and perceptive. For example, in the course of geography, students cannot travel in space in real life. If they wear head-mounted virtual reality equipment, students can observe the orbit of planets, stars and satellites from various angles, and observe the surface shape and internal structure of each planet. They can even land on Mars or the moon for "field" research and experience interstellar travel.
Headsets such as Microsoft HoloLens, Magic Leap and Meta 2 are all cool experiences that allow users to watch virtual TV anywhere, even projecting images onto a wall, phone screen or the air in front of them. These augmented reality devices will replace all "monitors and screens."
3.2 Application of desktop virtual reality and augmented reality devices in teaching
The representative product of desktop virtual reality and augmented reality equipment is the virtual reality education all-in-one machine of zSpace company in the United States, which has been in use in the United States since 2013, and the zSpace Z300 currently in use is the third
Generation of products. According to the latest "New Generation of Science Education Standards" in the United States, zSpace has developed courseware for grade 2 to grade 12, which is distributed in six software. Teachers can use the system platform
Implement teaching plan of courseware and develop new courseware creatively. ZSpace is not only a teaching tool, but also a rich resource for students and teachers. There are two hundred fifty in elementary schools, middle schools and colleges in the United States
Tens of thousands of students in many schools are using zSpace STEAM lab courseware to learn. China's Yunsun Interactive company introduced zSpace Z300 into China at the end of 2015. In April 2016, "Zhichuangspace" received 6 sets of this equipment as a gift for maker education and STEAM education promotion. So far, more than 2700 people have come to experience and learn. The content of zSpace Z300 covers life science, mathematics, physics, chemistry, history, geography, Earth and space science, art and other subjects in primary, middle and high schools, with a total of more than 440 courseware. The platform also provides courseware resource development system. Teachers can import 3D model files in STL, OBJ and other formats into the system according to their needs, and at the same time, they can add text, pictures, sound and video files. Teachers can modify and independently develop courseware resources that can run on Z300 platform just like making PPT courseware. The Z300 platform can be used in two ways: one is to wear 3D glasses (including tracking glasses and non-tracking glasses). The wearer of tracking glasses can operate with a laser pointer, while others can see the 3D virtual reality effect while wearing non-tracking glasses. The other option is to add a holographic camera and tablet (or projection) to superimpose the Z300's 3D image onto the tablet to create a glasses-free 3D augmented reality effect.
3.3 Application of handheld virtual reality and augmented reality devices in teaching
Handheld AUGMENTED reality devices mostly use a combination of mobile devices and APP software. Apps include Vision +AR, AR, 4D Book City, Vision, Vision AR, Niaozhao, etc. In addition, there are a variety of augmented reality books with matching APPS. For example, The "Science Run" series of augmented reality popular science books, such as "Robot Run out", "Experiment Run Out" and "Dinosaur Fight Come out", include iRobotAR, iScienceAR, Dinosaur Fight Come Out and other apps. Their principle is to use mobile phone cameras to obtain images of the real world. The special display effect of augmented reality can be realized by superimposing virtual images on the real world through mobile phones. Some apps provide rich educational resources, such as safety education, popular science books, literacy cards, puzzle games, etc., which are especially suitable for children's education. There are two ways to use it: one is to use the mobile APP together with the matching paper books, and scan the pictures on the books with the mobile phone camera, and then display the demonstration effect as shown in Figure 14 on the mobile phone screen; Another way is to use the APP to download augmented reality resources and overlay them with the outside world. Augmented reality special effects are very lifelike. Using these apps to learn, the learning process has a sense of reality, experience and immersion, which enhances students' interest in learning knowledge and can achieve the teaching effect of combining teaching with fun.
Four, virtual reality and augmented reality technology in the application of teaching problems
4.1 Vertigo in the application of virtual reality equipment
People will feel dizzy when using virtual reality equipment. From the perspective of hardware structure, many users will feel dizzy when using virtual reality products whose configurations cannot meet the requirements because the current technology cannot restore the real scene highly. The visual contrast in the virtual reality interface is large, and the actual movement and brain movement can not match normally, which affects the brain's analysis and judgment of the image presented, resulting in vertigo. The content of virtual reality equipment has a considerable part of the resources transplanted from the PC version, the UI interface can not match the virtual reality equipment well, the different system processing can not achieve coordination and unity, the picture light is too strong or too weak can not let the user accept; The interframe lag of vr devices can not keep up with human movements, resulting in a slight sense of delay, and can also make users feel dizzy when their senses are out of sync with the frame rate.
4.2 Virtual reality and augmented reality technology in teaching resources shortage
At present, virtual reality and augmented reality industry just started, software and hardware facilities are not complete, the technical force of developers is insufficient, many schools are not equipped with virtual reality and augmented reality equipment; Many teachers in primary and secondary schools have not contacted virtual reality and augmented reality, and do not know how to apply it in teaching, let alone how to develop virtual reality and augmented reality teaching resources. Therefore, there are few virtual reality resources developed for primary and secondary school teaching, and the shortage of curriculum resources is the biggest bottleneck for the promotion of virtual reality and augmented reality in primary and secondary schools. However, with the rapid development of virtual reality and augmented reality technology, it is imperative to apply virtual reality and augmented reality technology to teaching. The application of virtual reality and augmented reality technology in teaching in the future is bound to bring subversive changes to classroom teaching methods.
4.3 The design of virtual reality and augmented reality teaching platforms and resources emphasizes form over content
Constitute virtual reality teaching. Although the student had with relish in the virtual world, the classroom atmosphere is very active, it was a great student interaction, communication and discussion, on the face of the students got the immersive experience, but some virtual reality education platform provided by the knowledge still stays in the real world, textbook content monotonous, boring and not ease because of the existence of the software, The explanation of knowledge points has not become more vivid, interesting and targeted. This kind of virtual reality classroom only pays attention to the form but not the content, and teaching and learning are completely disconnected
It can only be called a pseudo-virtual reality classroom.
4.4 It is difficult to popularize VIRTUAL reality and augmented reality due to high price and limited technical conditions
Higher in the early period of the enterprise research and development costs, lower equipment sales, resulting in most of the virtual reality and augmented reality equipment sales prices high, many schools because of funding problems, unable to buy high price of virtual reality and augmented reality equipment, resulting in virtual reality and augmented reality technology popularization in school. For example, when zSpace Z300 was just introduced into China, each set was priced at more than 200,000 yuan, while Microsoft HoloLens was not yet on the market. The announced pre-sale price was more than 20,000 yuan per set, and the price of ordinary head-mounted virtual reality equipment was also between 2,000 and 5,000 yuan. Most virtual reality software generally has some problems, such as strong language specialty, poor universality and poor usability. Due to hardware limitations, virtual reality software development costs a lot and results are limited. In addition, there are many problems to be solved in new sensing applications, physical modeling methods, high-speed graphics and image processing, artificial intelligence and other fields. 3d modeling technology also needs to be further improved, and the fusion processing of big data and artificial intelligence technology needs to be further improved. The existence of many reasons above restricts the promotion and popularization of virtual reality and augmented reality technology in primary and secondary school teaching.
Artificial intelligence, big data analysis and virtual education are called the three major scientific and technological innovation directions affecting the future. In the future, virtual reality and augmented reality technology will combine more high-tech elements such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing, big data and mobile technology. With the development of virtual reality and augmented reality technology, its development prospect in the field of education will be broader and broader. Virtual reality and augmented reality learning environment bring us not only a technology platform or tool, but also a new teaching mode and teaching method.
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