Global Value Chain Reconstruction of Digital Creative Industries in 5G Era - Dr. Chen Nengjun
One, the introduction
Since the beginning of January 2020, COVID-19 has brought a great negative impact on China's economy. The United States, Japan and other countries, which occupy the high-end of the global value chain, have introduced policies and measures one after another to encourage multinational enterprises to move away from China and take the road of anti-globalization. In order to prevent and defuse major risks, the central government put forward "six guarantees", one of which is to ensure the stability of the supply chain and industrial chain. At the present stage, China's position in the global value chain is based on the gradual development of low value-added links transferred to China by multinational corporations. Since the 1990s, with the deepening of the division of labor system of the global value chain, western developed countries represented by the United States have dominated the high value-added production links of the global value chain in the traditional industries represented by the manufacturing industry by virtue of their superior capital, technology and market advantages. However, the developing countries represented by China, on the basis of sacrificing energy consumption and bearing environmental pollution, participate in the division of labor of global value chain to the maximum extent, but can only obtain extremely low value distribution. Therefore, in the process of embedding into the global value chain of traditional industries, developing countries, represented by China, have fallen into a cycle of disadvantage of "being captured" and "low-end locking".
Different from traditional industries, although digital creative industries pay equal attention to "technology" and "creativity", and even put more emphasis on people's imagination ability in some cases, 5G technology will have a greater impact on digital creative industries in the 5G era. Based on the existing leading advantages of 5G technology and industrialization in China, digital creative industry is expected to become a strategic field leading China's new economy to overtake, realizing the transformation from "following" to "running together" and finally "leading". China has the world's cutting-edge 5G technology. 5G features low delay, high speed and massive links, which will have a subversive and revolutionary impact on the digital creative industry. 5G can promote the diversity and diversification of cultural products and services, and enrich people's traditional ways of leisure and entertainment. Enable cultural industry management innovation, change the business model of cultural industry; Accelerate the Internet of Everything, the massive link will promote the deep integration of the Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence and other application technologies with the digital creative industry; Improve the technical complexity of the digital creative industry and enhance the Chinese added value of the global value chain of the digital creative industry. As a "new infrastructure", 5G can not only provide information and communication services for all walks of life, but also deeply integrate into economic development, national life, culture, leisure and other aspects, and gradually penetrate into the core infrastructure necessary for a major country. It is the secret weapon of competition between major countries.
Second, literature review
Existing research on the impact of 5G on the digital creative industry mainly focuses on the impact of 5G on the new business forms and new models of the digital creative industry. The development of 5G technology has an all-round impact on the new business forms and business models of the cultural industry. The new form is a new manifestation of the traditional industrial organization. The new form of work is not the formation of a new industry, but the innovation and upgrading of the traditional industry. The use of 5G and other new technologies intensifies the integration of business forms of cultural industry, and emerging business forms continue to emerge . For example, the connection between 5G and artificial intelligence is gradually deepening. 5G communication technology will use new media to achieve high-speed and accurate transmission effect of artificial intelligence and big data. In the future, "media brain", AI synthetic anchor, 5G+4K+AI, etc., are the trend direction of the integration of artificial intelligence and media. Immersive experience is another new form of business formed by the integration of culture and science and technology. It is an experience activity built on the core of space creation and relying on digital quasi-objects. It is an industrial form with great wonder, super shock and full experience.
In 5 g era, the cultural industry of the traditional operation mode still has its application value, along with the mobile cloud, the cloud wireless access network, reconfigurable network and infrastructure to build such as large data center virtualization, reconfigurable intelligent wireless network technology will be further promoted, such as cultural enterprises operating will release more "dividend" efficiency, the operation mode of the cultural creative enterprises in the original on the basis of traditional operation, will create many new business models. Taking the video industry as an example, Schuller et al. proposed to identify emotions by combining the features of spectrum, cepstrum and prosodic in 2004. In particular, spectral features were added on the basis of integrating pitch and harmonics to obtain the change data of consumer emotions receiving different audio information such as broadcasting. Bejani etc. To add the image analysis and computer analysis and application of the interactive relationship, this is using the twin system is used to identify the feelings, especially the voice model USES the import part features, facial video model using static and dynamic characteristics of the combination of two modes scores and dispersion analysis, form audio-visual database, is used to identify the emotional, this is one of the media in the future development direction.
In view of the great impact of manufacturing on employment, tax revenue, GDP, etc., existing literatures mainly study the GVC of manufacturing, while few literatures specifically study the GVC of digital creative industries. But there are exceptions, for example, zhi-peng zang compares the digital creative industry, the difference between the global value chain and traditional manufacturing global value chain think digital creative industries and traditional culture industry in research and development, production, product 10 aspects, such as a key difference, should be based on the GVC maturity and professional maturity to take appropriate strategy, gradually improve the digital creative industries in the global influence, establish strategic position of China's global value chain of digital creative industry leaders. In addition, in another article, he used the proportion of countries in the world's top 500 to measure the strength of the global value chain of digital creative industry. According to his research, China's digital creative industry lacks competitiveness in the content and creativity part, has weak technology development part, and is facing major competitive disadvantages such as the core circulation channels controlled by the United States.
To sum up, the existing research on the digital creative industry mainly focuses on the new business forms and new modes, and lacks the analysis of the value chain of the digital creative industry. There are few literatures on the study of the global value chain of the digital creative industry. Based on this, starting from 5G technology, it is of great significance to focus on the theoretical mechanism and influence path of 5G in enhancing the global value chain of cultural industry, which is of great significance to transforming the economic development mode in the new era and continuously supplying new driving forces for the development of digital creative industry.
III. The position of China's digital creative industries in the global value chain: based on multi-dimensional comparative analysis
1. Global value chain of digital creative industries
In the competitive advantage of the value chain is potter 1985  in the first time, this concept is based on the vertical integration of the micro enterprise and puts forward the subject of value creation process, think up the value chain is the production, marketing, transportation, and after-sales service and supporting activities in the process of the value of the company to create interconnected and constitutes an act of the company value creation chain. Global Value Chain (GVC) has jumped out of the transnational and trans-regional value chain form of micro-enterprises. Its essence is cross-border segmentation and collaboration of value creation activities on the one hand, and cross-border governance of value distribution on the other hand. The author discusses the digital creative industry value chain around the world are on the basis of porter's value chain, the digital creative industry refers to the global value chain around the world in order to be able to realize the value of digital creative product or service, by connecting creative design, product manufacturing, marketing, communication and transportation, after-sale service and other supporting activities such as different economic activities and segments of different industries, and formed a kind of global, across the enterprise digital creative value creation and distribution network (chain).
To enhance the position of China's digital creative industries in the global industrial chain is to enable China's digital creative industries (enterprises) to obtain more GVC rents by virtue of their dominant value chain segments. Through the in-depth study of GVC benefit distribution, it can be found that among the key factors that dominate GVC rent distribution, the two variables of technical barriers and monopoly organizations are particularly important. In terms of the variables of technical barriers, China's digital creative industry in the 5G era can form relatively obvious high-end technical barriers due to some leading advantages of China's 5G technology. At the same time, the Chinese government and enterprise organizations should strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights related to the digital creative industry to stabilize the high entry barriers to other countries. In terms of monopoly variables, China digital creative industries (enterprise) breaks down in the global digital creative industry monopolies, and stable new monopolies still has a long way to go, China's economic development, the foundation of the digital economy, digital digital creative industry competitive advantage compared with the developed countries and regions, some indicators still exists a certain gap.
2. Comparisons at the national level
In terms of national digital economy competitiveness, thanks to the government's strong support, China has become an important force leading the global digital pattern, the digital globalization process is in the ascence, and the "digital industry" is thriving. At present, China has the world's most active digital investment and entrepreneurial ecosystem, with the world's top three venture capital investments in key digital technologies such as virtual reality, autonomous driving technology, 3D printing, robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles and artificial intelligence. It has the world's largest e-commerce market, with mobile payment transactions 11 times that of the United States; It owns 1/3 of the world's unicorn enterprises . According to the data in Table 1, China ranks third in the world in terms of national competitiveness of digital economy, second only to the United States and Singapore.
In terms of individual indicators, China has comparative advantages in the scale of digital industry and the construction of digital infrastructure. China's manufacturing industry is large, diversified and has advantages in the whole industrial chain. Its digital industry competitiveness ranks first in the world, beating that of the United States. The rapid development of 5G technology in China, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council put forward from a strategic position to accelerate the construction of new infrastructure, and the construction of 5G base stations in China has been fully rolled out in major cities across the country. Therefore, the competitiveness of digital facilities ranks second, second only to the United States. However, in digital economy governance and other areas, China still has obvious weaknesses, compared with the United States, Singapore and other Western developed countries, there is a big gap. Digital governance and innovation ranked last out of all 18 countries, well below countries such as the US, Singapore, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, it is urgent to improve the innovation ability and governance ability of China's digital economy.
3. Comparison of major cities
Specific to a city, competitiveness can vary greatly. In order to accurately reflect the development status of digital economy in various countries, the selection of representative major cities for comparison is more expressive in medium level (Table 2). In terms of digital economy competitiveness of major cities, US cities had a significant advantage in 2018 in terms of digital economy competitiveness, taking a significant lead over cities from other countries. Among the 30 major cities surveyed for digital economy competitiveness, Boston tops the list, followed by Los Angeles, Seoul, San Francisco and New York, which rank second to fifth. China has two major cities on the list, Beijing and Shanghai, at number 9 and 14 respectively. In the three sub-indexes of urban digital innovation competitiveness, digital talent competitiveness, digital economy competitiveness and infrastructure competitiveness, Beijing and Shanghai both rank among the top ten cities in the list of digital economy and infrastructure competitiveness. There is still a large space for development and improvement.
4. Firm-level comparison
Enterprises are the micro foundation of national competitiveness. The number of digital creative enterprises in the world's top 500 enterprises can be used to roughly measure the strength of digital creative industries among countries. It can be seen from Table 3 that there are 13 countries in the world's top 500 with digital creative enterprises, among which the United States ranks the first with 17 of the world's top 500 digital creative enterprises. Next came China, with 10. Next up is Japan, which has seven digital creative companies on the Global 500 list, ranking third. It is followed by South Korea, which has three of the world's top 500 digital creative companies and ranks fourth. Germany, France and the United Kingdom each have two of the world's top 500 digital creative companies, ranking the fifth. Finally, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and other countries have one global top 500 digital creative enterprise respectively. Although China ranks second in the total number of enterprises, except Alibaba, Tencent and Huawei, there are not many enterprises with digital creativity content and innovation as the main strategy and making solid progress.
Compared with other countries, American companies are firmly in a dominant position in the value chain, whether it is content creation, media carrier, or industrial technology. In the field of digital creative content production such as film, television, animation, media and entertainment, Walt Disney, Time Warner, 21st Century Fox and Sony from the United States and Japan are far stronger than domestic enterprises such as Wanda, Lenovo and JD.com. It can be seen that in recent years, Chinese digital creative enterprises represented by Tencent and Alibaba have been trying to make breakthroughs and innovations, deeply exploring the layout of digital creative content value chain fields such as literature, film and television, music, games, etc. However, compared with Europe and the United States, China still has a long way to go. In addition, in chip, operating system and other technology development links, although Huawei has a certain technical strength, but in the key links is still subject to Qualcomm, Google and other giants. In terms of media carrier, the core distribution channels of mobile Internet are dominated and controlled by Apple's Google Play and Apple's App Store, the two major mobile application providers.
In conclusion, from the national level, city level and enterprise level comparative analysis of the macro, meso and micro view, digital creative industry in our country have a great progress in recent years, the size of the digital creative industries as well as digital infrastructure ahead of most countries, the world top 500 digital creative enterprise quantity also more than in most countries, but the board is more obvious, the digital creative industry big but not strong, weak digital innovation and governance, digital content production, distribution channel, creative industry technology development key, high value-added links such as disciplined by others. Encouragingly, China is at the forefront of a new round of technological revolution. New technologies, such as 5G and artificial intelligence, will redistribute the existing global value chain. China should seize the opportunity brought by 5G technological change and make arrangements in advance.